Non-electronic logic-construction of non-electronic logic

Non-electronic logic

It is possible to construct non-electronic digital mechanisms. In
principle, any technology capable of representing discrete states and
representing logic operations could be used to build mechanical logic.
MIT students Erlyne Gee, Edward Hardebeck, Danny Hillis (co-author of
The Connection Machine), Margaret Minsky and brothers Barry and Brian
Silverman, built two working computers from Tinker toys, string, a
brick, and a sharpened pencil. The Tinkertoy computer is supposed to
be in the Houston Museum of Natural Science.

Hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical versions of logic gates exist and
are used in situations where electricity cannot be used. The first two
types are considered under the heading offluidics. One application of
fluidic logic is in military hardware that is likely to be exposed to
a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (nuclear EMP, or NEMP) that would
destroy electrical circuits.

Mechanical logic is frequently used in inexpensive controllers, such
as those in washing machines. Famously, the first computer design, by
Charles Babbage, was designed to use mechanical logic. Mechanical
logic might also be used in very small computers that could be built
by nanotechnology.

Another example is that if two particular enzymes are required to
prevent the construction of a particular protein, this is the
equivalent of a biological "NAND" gate.

Ban on bulk SMS and MMS in india

As per the Instructions of The Government of India, Services to
BulkSMS have been disabled till Wednesday(29th September, 2010).

The government of India has imposed a ban on all bulk SMS (text
messages) and MMS (picture or video messages) under an effort to avoid
religious riots in the country as a court ruling on a controversial
religious site issue is expected to come out.

The ban is a daring step for the government of a progressive democracy
and has been imposed as text messages could be used to mobilize large
number of people for rioting or violent protests.

The Union Ministry of Communications and Information Technology had
announced the ban on Wednesday for a period of 72 hours. However,
statements on the country's Press Information Bureau website said that
the ban has been extended until September 30. The ban does not include
one to one text message between two mobile phones.

The ban has been affecting various social networks based on SMS text
messages like GupShup, and a number of mobile-based businesses.
GupShup has more than 35 million users in a country and it uses the
text messages to connect its members. These firms are loosing revenue
because they are unable to reach out to their customers.

Vishal Nongbet, senior director and head of marketing at GupShup said
that company could loose as much as 30% of its monthly revenue. Some
estimate the industry wide losses to be around Rs30 million.

A report by international research firm, ComScore had shown that
GupShup had more monthly users than world's largest social networking
site, Facebook in India. Facebook had 22 million unique visitors in
India in August and has emerged as the fastest growing social network.
GupShup under an agreement with the site offers Facebook's mobile
status updates.

Several other business firms have also been affected with the ban in
place. In various parts of the country, mobile phones are the easiest
and most accessible medium of communications and availing services
like banking, health care and even education.