The Muller C-element

The Muller C-element, or Muller C-gate, is a commonly used asynchronous logic component originally designed by David E. Muller. It applies logical operations on the inputs and has hysteresis. The output of the C-element reflects the inputs when the states of all inputs match. The output then remains in this state until the inputs all transition to the other state. This model can be extended to the Asymmetric C-element where some inputs only effect the operation in one of the transitions (positive or negative). The figure shows the gate-level and transistor-level implementations and symbol of the C-element.

C element.png

To understand how this works, look at the transistor-level implementation more closely:

C element shaded.png

The C-element stores its previous state with two cross-coupled inverters, similar to an SRAM cell. One of the inverters is weaker than the rest of the circuit, so it can be overpowered by the pull-up and pull-down networks.

If both inputs are 0, then the pull-up network changes the latch's state, and the C-element outputs a 0. If both inputs are 1, then the pull-down network changes the latch's state, making the C-element output a 1. Otherwise, the input of the latch is not connected to either Vdd or ground, and so the weak inverter (drawn smaller in the diagram) dominates and the latch outputs its previous state.

The Muller C-element was first used in the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) of the ILLIAC II supercomputer, proposed in 1958, and operational in 1962.

India's Population 2011

Current Population of India in 20111,210,000,000 (1.21 billion)
Total Male Population in India623,700,000 (623.7 million)
Total Female Population in India586,500,000 (586.5 million)
Sex Ratio914 females per 1,000 males
Age structure
0 to 25 years50% of India's current population
Currently, there are about 51 births in India in a minute.
India's Population in 20011.02 billion
Population of India in 1947350 million

Current Population of India - India, with 1,210,000,000 (1.21 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world, while China is on the top with over 1,350,044,605 (1.35 billion) people. The figures show that India represents almost 17.31% of the world's population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India. Although, the crown of the world's most populous country is on China's head for decades, India is all set to take the numero uno position by 2030. With the population growth rate at 1.58%, India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030.

More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35. About 72.2% of the population lives in some 638,000 villages and the rest 27.8% in about 5,480 towns and urban agglomerations. The birth rate (child births per 1,000 people per year) is 22.22 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6.4 deaths/1,000 population. Fertility rate is 2.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3, 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 estimated). India has the largest illiterate population in the world. The literacy rate of India as per 2001 Population Census is 65.38%, with male literacy rate at 75.96% and female at 54.28%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate at 90.86%, Mizoram (88.80%) is on the second position and Lakshadweep (86.66%) is on third.

India's Population in 2011Every year, India adds more people than any other nation in the world, and in fact the individual population of some of its states is equal to the total population of many countries. For example, Population of Uttar Pradesh (state in India) almost equals to the population of Brazil. It, as per 2001 Population Census of India, has 190 million people and the growth rate is 16.16%. The population of the second most populous state Maharashtra, which has a growth rate of 9.42%, is equal to that of Mexico's population. Bihar, with 8.07%, is the third most populous state in India and its population is more than Germany's. West Bengal with 7.79% growth rate, Andhra Pradesh (7.41%) and Tamil Nadu (6.07%) are at fourth, fifth and sixth positions respectively. The sex ratio of India stands at 933. Kerala with 1058 females per 1000 males is the state with the highest female sex ratio. Pondicherry (1001) is second, while Chhatisgarh (990) and Tamil Nadu (986) are at third and fourth places respectively. Haryana with 861 has the lowest female sex ratio.

Some of the reasons for India's rapidly growing population are poverty, illiteracy, high fertility rate, rapid decline in death rates or mortality rates and immigration from Bangladesh and Nepal. Alarmed by its swelling population, India started taking measures to stem the growth rate quite early. In fact India by launching the National Family Planning programme in 1952 became the first country in the world to have a population policy. The family planning programme yielded some noticeable results, bringing down significantly the country's fertility rate. In 1965-2009, the contraceptive usage more than tripled and the fertility rate more than halved. The efforts did produce positive results, however, failed to achieve the ultimate goal and the population of India since getting independence from Britain in 1947 increased almost three times. Whereas India has missed almost all its targets to bring the rate of population growth under control, China's 'One Child Policy' in 1978, has brought tremendous results for the latter. The policy claims to have prevented between 250 and 300 million births from 1978 to 2000 and 400 million births from 1979 to 2010.