Science and Tech:Towards more efficient solar cells

Potential use of a layer of silicon nanocrystals (large balls) and erbium ions (small balls) as a 'spectral shaper' for photovoltaic applications. This layer converts high-energy UV photons into infrared photons. These lower-energy photons are absorbed by an underlying solar cell. Credit: Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM)


A layer of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions may help solar cells to extract more energy from the ultraviolet (UV, high-energy) part of the solar spectrum. Experimental physicists from the FOM Foundation, the STW Technology Foundation and the University of Amsterdam published this news in Nature Communications on 13th August 2014. When conventional silicon-based solar cells absorb UV light, much of its energy is lost in the form of heat. The researchers showed that this excess energy can be used to excite multiple erbium ions. This causes the ions to emit light, which can then be converted into electricity.

Conventional solar cells can only convert a small part of the solar spectrum into electricity efficiently. Low-energy light particles (photons) are not absorbed, as they do not have enough energy to bridge the band gap of the material from which solar cells are made. By contrast, high-energy photons can be absorbed, but in just a few picoseconds (10-12 seconds) much of their energy is transformed into heat. This limits maximum efficiency to just 30 percent.

Fast and efficient

Saba Saeed and her colleagues have now shown that the conversion efficiency can potentially be increased by making better use of the energy contained in these high-energy photons. This can be achieved with a layer consisting of silicon dioxide, silicon nanocrystals (particles with a size of a billionth of a meter) and erbium ions. The silicon nanocrystals transfer its excess energy to the erbium ions, before it is lost as heat. This leads to the emission of several low-energy infrared photons per absorbed photon, which can produce extra electricity. Compared to sunlight concentrators, which sometimes also make use of rare-earth metals such as erbium, this technique holds the prospect of a higher efficiency.

Spectral shaper

While the process has been demonstrated experimentally, it has not yet been used in a photovoltaic architecture (a solar cell). In the future, a layer of silicon nanocrystals and erbium ions could be placed on top of solar cells as a 'spectral shaper', to enhance their efficiency. The 'spectral shapers' would convert high-energy UV photons to several low-energy photons, which can then be used to generate electricity in a solar cell.


read more at
Explore further: http://phys.org/news/2014-08-efficient-solar-cells.html


Tech Update: “Open In Terminal” action in Nautilus in Ubuntu 14.04

nautilus-open-terminal and nautilus-actions packages are available in Universe repository of Ubuntu 14.04. So run the below commands to enable universe repository and also to install above mentioned packages.

sudo add-apt-repository universe
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install nautilus-open-terminal
sudo apt-get install nautilus-actions
Finally run nautilus -q command to quit nautilus.Now you can be able to see Open in terminal option on right-clicking.

ACT paper pattern and ACT Exam Scheme: A national college admissions examination

The ACT is a standardized test which acts as a national college admissions examination. The examination tests you on four key test areas: English, Mathematics, Reading and Science. Also there is an ACT plus writing test which includes the mentioned test areas along with an optional 30 minute writing test.

ACT Exam Pattern

The ACT consist of four multiple choice test papers and an optional written test.

English

This test measures the candidates written English ability and checks his/hers rhetorical ability. There are 75 questions asked in this section and 45 minutes are provided to complete the part. The test covers:

Usage/Mechanics

  • punctuation
    • Rhetorical Skills

    Mathematics

    The mathematics part of ACT is incorporated to check the candidate's mathematical skills that the student has acquired over the time and till the beginning of grade 12. For this section you are required to have knowledge of basic formulas and computational skills to answer the problems, but you are not required to know complex formulas and perform extensive computation. The section has 60 questions which are to be completed in 60 minutes.

    Reading

    This part of the paper deals in reading comprehensions. This part of the paper is has 40 questions which are to be completed in 35 minutes. The reading part will deal with questions which will deal with direct statements or with implied meanings. Either ways you are to:

    • determine main ideas
    • locate and interpret significant details
    • understand sequences of events
    • make comparisons
    • comprehend cause-effect relationships
    • determine the meaning of context-dependent words, phrases, and statements
    • draw generalizations
    • analyze the author's or narrator's voice and method

    Sciences

    This part of ACT which measures the interpretation, analysis, evaluation, reasoning, and problem-solving skills required in natural sciences. This part of the paper is has 40 questions which are to be completed in 35 minutes. The test presents several sets of scientific information, each followed by a number of multiple-choice test questions. The scientific information is conveyed in one of three different formats:

    • data representation (graphs, tables, and other schematic forms)
    • research summaries (descriptions of several related experiments)
    • conflicting viewpoints (expressions of several related hypotheses or views that are inconsistent with one another)

    Optional writing test

    There is also an optional writing test in the paper which is designed to measure the writing skills of a student that he/she acquires in high school English classes and in entry-level college composition courses. The test consists of one writing prompt that will define an issue and describe two points of view on that issue. You are asked to respond to the question and explain your position on the. In doing so, you may adopt one or the other of the perspectives described in the prompt, or you may present a different point of view on the issue. Your score will not be affected by the point of view you take on the issue. The section is to be completed within 30 minutes.

  • grammar and usage
  • sentence structure
  • strategy
  • organization
  • style
  • reference:  http://www.successcds.net/study-abroad/act-paper-pattern-exam-scheme.html


    PhD Admission Notification 2014: University of Calcutta

    University of Calcutta announces admission for Ph.D in Marine Science Programme for 2014 session.

    No of Seats: 12 (Reservation policy will be followed as per rules)

    Name of Supervisors/Guides: Prof. T.K. Jana; Prof. S.K. Sarkar; Prof. T.K. De; Dr. S. K Mukhopadhyay

    All are faculty of Dept. of Marine Science, Calcutta University & Prof. S.K Das, Dept of Chemical Engineering, Calcutta University



    University of Calcutta

    (Department of Marine Science), 35, B.C. Road, Kolkata-700019, Website www.caluniv.ac.in
    Application form is available on www.caluniv.ac.in

    Date of submission of the Application Form from 24th Aug 2014 to 1st Sept 2014

    Admission Test will be taken on 03rd Sept 2014 (01.00 pm to 02.00 p.m.) based upon M.Sc Syllabus of Marine Science

    Interview Date: 10th Sept 2014 (time 11.00 am, Venue: Chamber of the Head of the



    PhD Admission Notification 2014: Gandhigram Rural Institute

    The Gandhigram Rural Institute (GRI), Tamil Nadu has invited application for admission to Ph.D Courses for the Session August-2014

    In the various Disciplines (refer the link: http://www.ruraluniv.ac.in/phdspec14.pdf)

    Eligibility

    Candidates (Indian / Foreigner) who have studied under 10+2+3+2 years pattern or 10+2+5 years or 11+1+3+2 or 12+2+ 3+3 or 10+2+4+2 pattern of education and qualified for the award of the Master's Degree in relevant discipline in Gandhigram Rural Institute - Deemed University (GRI-DU/GRI) or any other university recognized by the University Grants Commission in relevant discipline with not less than 55% marks (50% for SC/ST and part-time non-teacher candidates) or an equivalent grade are eligible
    In addition, he / she should have qualified the entrance test conducted by GRI or should have obtained M.Phil or qualified the UGC-JRF /NET/SLET/Lecturership / GATE / CSIR /ICAR /ICSSR or other fellowships or passed equivalent examinations

    Entrance Test: An entrance test will be conducted by the controller of examinations

    The question paper will be prepared totally for 2 hours; one hour for research aptitude test (general) and one hour for the subject test

    Application Form The application form along with the prospectus can be obtained in person from the Deputy Registrar (Academic), The Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram-624302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu on cash payment of Rs.1000/- or through DD for Rs 1000/- drawn in favour of "The Registrar, The Gandhigram Rural Institute", payable at Canara Bank, Gandhigram (Code 8500) / State Bank of India, Ambathurai (Code 3373) and any Nationalized/Scheduled Bank in Dindigul

    Candidates can also download the application form from website www.ruraluniv.ac.in

    In such cases Demand Draft should be enclosed for the cost of application and registration fee along with filled in application form

    The filled in application form enclosing copies of necessary certificates are to be submitted to "The Deputy Registrar (Academic), The Gandhigram Rural Institute", Gandhigram 624302, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu

    Last date for submission of completed application forms is 30th August 2014

     

    The Gandhigram Rural Institute

    Deemed University, (Re-Accredited by NAAC with 'A' Grade), Gandhigram-624302, Dindigul District, Tamilnadu, India, Tel: 0451-2452371, Email: grucc@ruraluniv.ac.in, Website


    Upcoming MBA Entrance Exams 2014 for 2015 admissions and Last Date of Application

    The Master of Business Administration (MBA) is a master's degree in business administration.
    Given below  is the list of upcoming MBA Entrance Exams in the  2014 and 2015  for admission to MBA Programmes in Top Business Schools in India amongst others

    Examination

    Exam Date

    Last Date of Application

    Common Admission Test (CAT) 2014

    16th and 22nd November 2014

    30th September 2014

    Management Aptitude Test (MAT) 2014

    Date for Paper Based Test: 07 Sept.r 2014 (Sunday)

    Date for Computer Based Test: 13 Sept. 2014 (Saturday)

    23 August 2014

    IGNOU – OPENMAT 2014 – XXXVI

    17th August 2014, Sunday

    15th July 2014

    IIFT 2014 Entrance Exam 2014

    23rd November 2014

    03rd September 2014

    NMIMS Management Aptitude Test (NMAT) 2015

    07th Oct., 2014
    to 20th Dec., 2014

    04th October, 2014

    AICTE CMAT 2015-2016

    Computer based test dates: 25th September 2014 to 29th September 2014

    25th August 2014

    IBSAT 2014 MBA Entrance Exam 10th Dec.,, 2014 to 31st Dec., 2014
    01 Dec., 2014
    IIFT MBA-IB Entrance Exam 2014 23rd November 2014
    03rd September 2014

    Other upcoming MBA entrance exam include state for Maharashtra CET (MAHCET ), Karnataka (KMAT), Tamilnadu (TANCET), Andhra Pradesh and Telangana(ICET) and other states and National MBA Entrance Tests like AICTE CMAT and AIMS ATMA.


    Tech Buzz: Some Important Education apps for students

    The world is changing and so is the education system. The 'apps' world has made it easier for students to deal with the ongoing competition and with the ever increasing pressure. Mobile learning and mobile tools, now more than ever, have become an integral part of the education system. Be it in colleges, school or universities; everyone everywhere has realized the power that this new platform brings with it self. After all, Apple's iPad alone contains roughly 65,000 educational apps.

    The advent of technology has brought itself a new wave of learning and making it far more easy and interesting for students of today's era to cope up with the increasing competition and pressure. Check out 10 must have education apps for today students.

    App #1 – Dictionary.com

    It is one of those simple apps that you should have installed on your device, regardless of the fact what course you are pursuing. Dictionary.com has been one of the top most apps on all the interfaces at one time or the other. The app boasts of having around over 2,000,000 definitions and synonyms from Dictionary.com and Thesaurus.com! The ability to do most of your work offline is one of the reasons why this app is so popular in the first place. The application also features a voice-to-text search in some of its versions.

    Compatible with:

    • Windows
    • Apple
    • Android
    • Blackberry
    • More…

    App #2 – Duolingo

    This owl called Duo will try and teach you languages that are available with the app. If that doesn't get fascinating, I don't know what does. Just kidding! So in today, we are always presented with the question of the number of languages known to us and this app presents with an easy platform of learning foreign languages just at the touch of your fingertip. It is a free-app language-learning and crowdsourced text translation platform which at the moment is offering Latin American Spanish, French, German, Brazilian Portuguese and Italian for English speakers and American English, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Italian, French and many more to the native speakers of the languages.

    Compatible with:

    • Windows
    • Apple
    • Android
    • Blackberry
    • More…

    App #3 – Flash Cards (Mental Case, Chegg)

    Ever wondered is anything can replace the sweet and simple flashcards, well they have been replaced and placed well in-front of your fingertips. No one can undermine the power and role that flashcards play in the learning process. So keeping in true color, Mental Case and Chegg app was brought out to the world of IOS users. Simply based on the way flashcards work, the app gives you the power to create mental notes, while encompassing plenty of bells and whistles. The virtual flashcards on your screen can include images, videos, text and audio. You have the choice to view them as a slideshow. If you think that you are not up to the writing and creating part of the learning process then you will also have a free access to FlashcardExchange.com and Quizlet.com. The user also has an option of sharing the notes with other users via your iPhone, iPad, or Mac over the mail or iCloud.

    Compatible with:

    • Apple (iPhone, iPad, or Mac)


    App #5 – TED

    Company they say matters and can make or break a person. So when TED brings you the option of listening in to the some of the greatest minds of today's world, you jump up and grab the opportunity. The app brings to you some of the greatest educators, radical technology geniuses, medical mavericks, business experts and legends of music, etc. The app has a striking and intuitive interface which will also provide you the option of downloading the videos so that you can watch them later in offline mode. The availability of subtitles is also there. The TED app is the best way to access TED's educational, inspirational, and entertaining videos from your mobile device.

    Compatible with:

    • Windows
    • Apple
    • Android
    • Blackberry
    • More…

    App #6 – Angry Words

    The more you read and practice your vocabulary the more are your chances in excelling in your linguistic competency. Angry Word is one such app which not only makes you practice your words but also at the same time makes you have a good time and enjoy yourself. Angry Words is a multiplayer game, which is quite similar to Scrabble, and will allow you to exercise your mind while having a good time. The player has the option of choosing between English, Spanish, German, Italian and French. Students using the game for the purpose of enhancing their vocabulary can use the words which are new to them and put them down separately and challenge yourself to write sentences with them.

    Compatible with:

    • Windows
    • Apple
    • Android
    • Blackberry
    • More…

    App #7 – eNews (TOI, ET, HT)

    As students it is of the utmost importance that you always be on your toes and know what's going on around you. There is no better source than having a newspaper on your mobile or tab. A subway ride, metro, taxi, waiting for the bus, stuck in traffic, there is just any where that you can open your app and go through the information you need to know. More over mostly all such apps send push notifications which automatically puts up an alert on your screen. The Gaurdian, Times of India, Economic Times, Hindustan Times, and so many others have launched e-versions of their newspapers.

     

    Compatible with:

    • Windows
    • Apple
    • Android
    • Blackberry
    • More…

    App #8 – Exam Time

    Technology sure has come a long way and it would be a shame not to put it to use, especially when something is so helpful. Exam Time is an app which will do you almost what you can while studying; flashcards, mind maps, online notes, quizzes, sharing notes with friends and much more. It is an app which will not only make preparing for your course easy but also fun. Apart from all this, Exam Time has the option of providing for its users an exclusive study Group, online calendar, a study planner and other such options. So all in all the app gives you the power to get organized and motivated for your courses/ exams in turn engaging you to learn more stuff in an effective manner. So get going and create your own content by using Exam Time and their unique study tools. 

    Compatible with:

    • Apple

    App #9 – Job sites (Naukri.com/Monster)

    The end wish of every student is to get absorbed by the best companies that are out there. Job sites such as Naukri.com and Monster.com give out information and make it really easy to know of what kind of jobs are available in the market and also the kind of candidates the companies require. A head start in to the working arena is all that everyone would want. Although such apps will only be of better use once you are in the final stages of completing your education, but nonetheless will make you thank your stars if you find what you are looking for. Most of these sites will get you to make a profile and then ask you if you are interested in a particular job and then forward your profile to the hirer. 

    Compatible with:

    • Windows
    • Apple
    • Android
    • Blackberry
    • More…

    App #10 – Khan Academy

    Khan Academy is a supplementary app to the Khan Academy website. The app similar to its YouTube Channel has videos for engineering, history, mathematics, computer science, business, etc. The user can pick his/ her preference and then continue for lessons in that particular interest. The video library has more than 3,000 videos. The Khan Academy app also has their very own AppStore to view the videos from the repository. The user will have the option of logging into the app through a simple Khan Academy user account, Google, or Facebook which will also in turn keep a track of their viewer history and earn the users badges.

    Compatible with:

    • Apple


    source: http://www.successcds.net/Career/10-must-have-education-apps-for-students.html

    The world is changing and so is the education system. The 'apps' world has made it easier for students to deal with the ongoing competition and with the ever increasing pressure. Mobile learning and mobile tools, now more than ever, have become an integral part of the education system. Be it in colleges, school or universities; everyone everywhere has realized the power that this new platform brings with it self. After all, Apple's iPad alone contains roughly 65,000 educational apps. The advent of technology has brought itself a new wave of learning and making it far more easy and interesting for students of today's era to cope up with the increasing competition and pressure. Check out 10 must have education apps for today students. App #1 – Dictionary.com dictionary It is one of those simple apps that you should have installed on your device, regardless of the fact what course you are pursuing. Dictionary.com has been one of the top most apps on all the interfaces at one time or the other. The app boasts of having around over 2,000,000 definitions and synonyms from Dictionary.com and Thesaurus.com! The ability to do most of your work offline is one of the reasons why this app is so popular in the first place. The application also features a voice-to-text search in some of its versions. Compatible with: Windows Apple Android Blackberry More… App #2 – Duolingo dictionary This owl called Duo will try and teach you languages that are available with the app. If that doesn't get fascinating, I don't know what does. Just kidding! So in today, we are always presented with the question of the number of languages known to us and this app presents with an easy platform of learning foreign languages just at the touch of your fingertip. It is a free-app language-learning and crowdsourced text translation platform which at the moment is offering Latin American Spanish, French, German, Brazilian Portuguese and Italian for English speakers and American English, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Italian, French and many more to the native speakers of the languages. Compatible with: Windows Apple Android Blackberry More… App #3 – Flash Cards (Mental Case, Chegg) dictionary Ever wondered is anything can replace the sweet and simple flashcards, well they have been replaced and placed well in-front of your fingertips. No one can undermine the power and role that flashcards play in the learning process. So keeping in true color, Mental Case and Chegg app was brought out to the world of IOS users. Simply based on the way flashcards work, the app gives you the power to create mental notes, while encompassing plenty of bells and whistles. The virtual flashcards on your screen can include images, videos, text and audio. You have the choice to view them as a slideshow. If you think that you are not up to the writing and creating part of the learning process then you will also have a free access to FlashcardExchange.com and Quizlet.com. The user also has an option of sharing the notes with other users via your iPhone, iPad, or Mac over the mail or iCloud. Compatible with: Apple (iPhone, iPad, or Mac) App #4 – Admission Tweeks dictionary Admission Tweeks is one stop wonder for all the students appearing or on the verge of appearing for entrance tests in India. The app keeps you up to speed with the latest education news, entrance exam notifications, exam dates to admission notices, and study tips to job alerts to any and all streams. Not only that, the app will keep you glued in with its self improvement and career guidance articles. Equipped with Push Notifications, this free app has been designed for students and will give you the option of going through topics of your choice at your convenience. The following categories are available on the app; What's New, Management, Engineering, Medical (UG), PG Medical, Law Entrance, Banking, UPSC Exams, IT Courses, PhD Admission, Distance Learning, Job Alerts, Scholarship/ Loans, Motivation2day and Career Zone. Compatible with: Android App #5 – TED dictionary Company they say matters and can make or break a person. So when TED brings you the option of listening in to the some of the greatest minds of today's world, you jump up and grab the opportunity. The app brings to you some of the greatest educators, radical technology geniuses, medical mavericks, business experts and legends of music, etc. The app has a striking and intuitive interface which will also provide you the option of downloading the videos so that you can watch them later in offline mode. The availability of subtitles is also there. The TED app is the best way to access TED's educational, inspirational, and entertaining videos from your mobile device. Compatible with: Windows Apple Android Blackberry More… App #6 – Angry Words dictionary The more you read and practice your vocabulary the more are your chances in excelling in your linguistic competency. Angry Word is one such app which not only makes you practice your words but also at the same time makes you have a good time and enjoy yourself. Angry Words is a multiplayer game, which is quite similar to Scrabble, and will allow you to exercise your mind while having a good time. The player has the option of choosing between English, Spanish, German, Italian and French. Students using the game for the purpose of enhancing their vocabulary can use the words which are new to them and put them down separately and challenge yourself to write sentences with them. Compatible with: Windows Apple Android Blackberry More… App #7 – eNews (TOI, ET, HT) dictionary As students it is of the utmost importance that you always be on your toes and know what's going on around you. There is no better source than having a newspaper on your mobile or tab. A subway ride, metro, taxi, waiting for the bus, stuck in traffic, there is just any where that you can open your app and go through the information you need to know. More over mostly all such apps send push notifications which automatically puts up an alert on your screen. The Gaurdian, Times of India, Economic Times, Hindustan Times, and so many others have launched e-versions of their newspapers. Compatible with: Windows Apple Android Blackberry More… App #8 – Exam Time dictionary Technology sure has come a long way and it would be a shame not to put it to use, especially when something is so helpful. Exam Time is an app which will do you almost what you can while studying; flashcards, mind maps, online notes, quizzes, sharing notes with friends and much more. It is an app which will not only make preparing for your course easy but also fun. Apart from all this, Exam Time has the option of providing for its users an exclusive study Group, online calendar, a study planner and other such options. So all in all the app gives you the power to get organized and motivated for your courses/ exams in turn engaging you to learn more stuff in an effective manner. So get going and create your own content by using Exam Time and their unique study tools. Compatible with: Apple App #9 – Job sites (Naukri.com/Monster) dictionary The end wish of every student is to get absorbed by the best companies that are out there. Job sites such as Naukri.com and Monster.com give out information and make it really easy to know of what kind of jobs are available in the market and also the kind of candidates the companies require. A head start in to the working arena is all that everyone would want. Although such apps will only be of better use once you are in the final stages of completing your education, but nonetheless will make you thank your stars if you find what you are looking for. Most of these sites will get you to make a profile and then ask you if you are interested in a particular job and then forward your profile to the hirer. Compatible with: Windows Apple Android Blackberry More… App #10 – Khan Academy dictionary Khan Academy is a supplementary app to the Khan Academy website. The app similar to its YouTube Channel has videos for engineering, history, mathematics, computer science, business, etc. The user can pick his/ her preference and then continue for lessons in that particular interest. The video library has more than 3,000 videos. The Khan Academy app also has their very own AppStore to view the videos from the repository. The user will have the option of logging into the app through a simple Khan Academy user account, Google, or Facebook which will also in turn keep a track of their viewer history and earn the users badges. Compatible with: Apple

    Read more at: http://www.successcds.net/Career/10-must-have-education-apps-for-students.html

    Google India's home page Doodle on August 15th 2014 : Independent India's first stamp

    The doodle on the Google India home page this year is a familiar symbol - independent India's first stamp.

    The first stamp issued by free India was months after Independence on November 21, 1947 and it depicted the Indian national flag with the popular slogan - "Jai Hind (Long Live India)" written in Hindi. The stamp was valued at three and one-half annas.

    Google has been commemorating India's Independence Day on its India home page since 2003.

    AP Postal Circle Recruitment 2014: For 410 Postman and Mail Guard Posts -Notification, How to Apply, Last Date

    AP Postal Circle Recruitment 2014








    Total Number of Posts : 410

    Posts Name : 
    I. Postman: 379 Posts
    II Mail Guard: 31 Posts

    Educational Qualification : 
    Candidates should have done 10th from a recognized board or university.

    Age Limit : 
    Age should be between 18 to 27 years as on 18th august 2014. Relaxation in upper age limit is applicable as per govt norms.

    Application Fee : 
    1. Male (OC/ OBC), Ex-Servicemen (OC/ OBC) candidates to pay Rs. 500/-.
    2. Female (OC/ OBC/ SC/ ST), Male (SC/ ST), PH candidates both male and female (OC/ OBC/ SC/ ST) & Ex-Servicemen (SC/ ST) candidates to pay Rs. 100 only.

    Selection Process : 
    Will be based on the basis of performance in Aptitude test.

    Pay Band : Rs. 5200 to Rs. 20,200 + Grade Pay Rs. 2000/-.

    How to Apply : 
    Candidates fill Online Application form throug website www.appost.in

    Important Dates :
    Online Registration of Application Opening Date : 21-07-2014
    Online Registration of Application Last Date : 18-08-2014

    Nobel Prize winners 2014 list : Mathematics


    Nobel Prize winners 2014 list  : Mathematics




    Canadian-American maths wizard ​Manjul Bhargava.


    Mathematicians of Indian- and Iranian-origin are among the four winners of the 2014 Fields Medal, widely considered the Nobel Prize for maths that has been broadly dominated by white males since it was instituted in 1936.

    The award going to Princeton University's Manjul Bhargava, a Canadian-American maths wizard was no surprise; although he is the first person of Indian origin, he was the hot favorite in pre-award polls among peers.

    The sensational co-winner is Maryam Mirzakhani, a female Iranian mathematician who teaches at Stanford University. It is the first time a female mathematician has won the Fields medal; all 52 previous winners have been men in a field traditionally dominated by the male of the species.

    Expectedly, it created a ripple in the rarefied maths world.

    Mirzakhani's success was "hugely symbolic and I hope it will encourage more women to get into mathematics because we need more women. I am very happy that now we can put to rest that particular 'it has never happened before'," Ingrid Daubechies, herself the first female president of the International mathematical Union (IMU), said while announcing the award.

    The two other winners this year are Artur Avila from Brazil and Martin Hairer from Austria. Avila is also the first Brazilian and Latin American to win the medal.

    One to four Fields Medals are awarded once every four years to mathematicians under the age of 40 years at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), which meets every four years. The presentation will take place in Seoul on Wednesday at the quadrennial IMU Congress (Hyderabad hosted it in 2010).

    read complete article at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/nri/us-canada-news/Indian-origin-wizard-wins-Nobel-Prize-of-Mathematics/articleshow/40162449.cms

    Tech Ubuntu 14.04 update : Install Java JDK in Ubuntu 14.04 : the manual way

     how Install Java JDK in Ubuntu 14.04 : the manual way

    There is a similar answer on how to install JRE 8.

    Install Java JDK

    The manual way

    • Download the 32bit or 64bit Linux "compressed binary file" - it has a ".tar.gz" file extension.

    • Uncompress it

      tar -xvf jdk-8-linux-i586.tar.gz (32bit)

      tar -xvf jdk-8-linux-x64.tar.gz (64bit)

      JDK 8 package is extracted into ./jdk1.8.0 directory. N.B. check carefully this folder name since Oracle seem to change this occasionally with each update.

    • Now move the JDK 8 directory to /usr/lib

      sudo mkdir -p /usr/lib/jvm  sudo mv ./jdk1.8.0 /usr/lib/jvm/  
    • Now run

      sudo update-alternatives --install "/usr/bin/java" "java" "/usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0/bin/java" 1  sudo update-alternatives --install "/usr/bin/javac" "javac" "/usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0/bin/javac" 1  sudo update-alternatives --install "/usr/bin/javaws" "javaws" "/usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0/bin/javaws" 1  

      This will assign Oracle JDK a priority of 1, which means that installing other JDKs will replace it as the default. Be sure to use a higher priority if you want Oracle JDK to remain the default.

    • Correct the file ownership and the permissions of the executables:

      sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/java   sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/javac   sudo chmod a+x /usr/bin/javaws  sudo chown -R root:root /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0  

      N.B. remember - Java JDK has many more executables that you can similarly install as above. java, javac, javaws are probably the most frequently required.
      This answer lists the other executables available.

    • Run

      sudo update-alternatives --config java  

    You will see output similar one below - choose the number of jdk1.8.0 - for example 3 in this list (unless you have have never installed Java installed in your computer in which case a sentence saying "There is nothing to configure" will appear):

        $ sudo update-alternatives --config java      There are 3 choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).

    to enable Mozilla Firefox plugin:
    32 bit:  ln -s /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0/jre/lib/i386/libnpjp2.so ~/.mozilla/plugins/    64 bit:  ln -s /usr/lib/jvm/jdk1.8.0/jre/lib/amd64/libnpjp2.so ~/.mozilla/plugins/

    N.B. you can link the plugin (libnpjp2.so) to /usr/lib/firefox/plugins/ for a system wide installation, For Ubuntu 13.10 path to plugin directory is /usr/lib/firefox/browser/plugins/

    Depending on your configuration, you might need to update the apparmor profile for firefox (or other browsers) in /etc/apparmor.d/abstractions/ubuntu-browsers.d/java



    read more and completely at http://askubuntu.com/questions/56104/how-can-i-install-sun-oracles-proprietary-java-jdk-6-7-8-or-jre/55960#55960

    Science and Tech: Japanese universities develop new world's fastest camera

    Schematic of STAMP. Credit: (c) Nature Photonics (2014) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2014.163

    Researchers working at two universities in Japan have jointly developed what is being described as the world's fastest camera. A photo-device with a frame interval of 4.4 trillion frames per second. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes how their camera works, its capabilities and the extensive work that went into its creation.

    High speed cameras allow researchers and everyday people alike the ability to see things that they wouldn't be able to otherwise, from slowdown of sports play to mechanical processes. Prior to the announcement in Japan, the fastest cameras relied on what's known as a pump-probe process—where light is "pumped" at an object to be photographed, and then "probed" for absorption. The main drawback to such an approach is that it requires repetitive measurements to construct an image. The new camera is motion-based femtophotography, performing single-shot bursts for image acquisition, which means it has no need for repetitive measurements. It works via optical mapping of an object's spatial profile which varies over time. Its abilities make it 1000 times as fast as cameras it supersedes. In addition to the extremely high frame rate, the camera also has a high pixel resolution (450 × 450).

    Developed by a joint team of researchers from Keio University and the University of Tokyo, the camera is set to capture images of things and events that until now have not been impossible. With technology the team has named Sequentially Timed All-optical Mapping Photography, or STAMP for short, the camera is poised to be used to capture chemical reactions, lattice vibrational waves, plasma dynamics, even heat conduction, which the researchers note occurs at approximately a sixth the speed that light travels.

    read complete details at http://phys.org/news/2014-08-japanese-universities-world-fastest-camera.html

    NMAT 2015: Notifcaion,Important Dates,previous papers for practise

    NMAT 2015: Notifcaion,Important Dates

    NMAT is the entrance test considered by NMIMS for admission into various courses of Business Management Studies in NMIMS (Mumbai Campus, Bengaluru Campus and Hyderabad Campus)


    Important Dates

    The date for NMAT 2015 has been announced. The registration for NMAT-2015 are open from 2nd July for admissions in its School of Business Management for academic session 2015-16 and the students, after their formal registrations in NMAT 2015, shall be able to take online test in a window period of almost one and a half month from 07th October to 20th December 2014 with a choice of two more retakes after first attempt. NMAT 2015 Test Centers are mentioned later in the module.

    It will allow choice of two retakes (i.e. 3 attempts in all) to the students if they wish to take the exam for the second and third time consecutively to better the score. In such cases, the best of three scores will be considered by NMIMS for admissions. It is the same pattern that NMIMS followed last year as well, for NMAT 2014.


    The candidates appearing for the NMAT 2015 should also remember that it is not mandatory to appear for all the three or even two retakes offered by NMIMS as they will not lose out in competition with other appearing candidates if they chose to take the NMAT-2015 only once. 

    Sr. No.

    Activity

    Important Dates

    1

    Registration Start Date

    Wednesday, 2nd July, 2014

    2

    Registration End Date

    Wednesday, 24th September, 2014

    3

    Scheduling Start Date

    Thursday ,17th July, 2014

    4

    Scheduling End Date

    Tuesday, 7th October, 2014

    5

    Late Registration Start Date

    Thursday ,25th September, 2014

    6

    Late Registration End Date

    Saturday, 4th October, 2014

    7

    Re- scheduling Start Date

    Thursday, 17th July, 2014

    8

    Re-scheduling End Date

    Wednesday, 17th December, 2014

    9

    Exam Delivery Start Date

    Tuesday, 7th October, 2014

    10

    Exam Delivery End Date

    Saturday, 20th December, 2014

    11

    Re-take Scheduling Start Date

    Tuesday, 7th October, 2014

    12

    Re-take Scheduling End Date

    Friday, 19th December, 2014

    13

    Announcement of results

    Thursday, 22nd January, 2015

    14

    Registration for CD/ PI

    23rd January, 2015 to 3rd February, 2015

    15

    Conduct of CD/ PI

    11th February, 2015 to 24th February, 2015

    16

    First Merit List

    4th March, 2015


    You should not be misled by others opinion on tests being easy or difficult in any given period of the test window. Remember that the tests in NMAT-2015 will be generated randomly from a pool of questions. You may be able to improve your score provided you have prepared better and have performed better during subsequent attempt that you decide to take but there is no guarantee that your scores will improve in subsequent attempts. 

    Scores will be equated for all the candidates and the percentile scores will be calculated after all the candidates have taken their exam(s) and announced on a set date at NMIMS website (www.nmims.edu) and candidates will know that date well in advance.



    NMAT 2015: The Admission Procedure and Admission Test of following full time MBA - Mumbai & PGDM - Bengaluru / PGDBM - Hyderabad Programmes for academic year commencing from June 2015.

    Name of the program

    Number of Seats

    MBA

    Two year full time programme having concentration in any one of the following area:

    1. Finance
    2. Information Systems
    3. Marketing
    4. Operations & Decision Sciences

    500

    MBA Human Resource

    60

    MBA Pharmaceutical Management

    60

    Bengaluru Campus

    Number of Seats

    PGDM

    120

    Hyderabad Campus

    Number of Seats

    PGDBM

    60


    NOTE: For NMAT 2015, candidates can apply for more than one Program

    NMAT 2015: Eligibility Criteria for Admission for Indian Candidates


    S. No.

    Name of Program

    Eligibility Criteria

    1

    • MBA (Mumbai Campus)
    • Full Time Bachelor's Degree (10+2+3/4) in any discipline from a recognized University with minimum 50% marks in the aggregate in first attempt.
    • Those candidates who have cleared their graduation by doing a part-time course or through distance learning, correspondence courses, externally, open school are NOT ELIGIBLE to apply.

    2

    • MBA HR Selection process is separate (Mumbai Campus)
    • Full Time Bachelor's Degree (10+2+3/4) in any discipline from a recognized University with minimum 50% marks in the aggregate in first attempt.
    • Those candidates who have cleared their graduation by doing a part-time course or through distance learning, correspondence courses, externally, open school are NOT ELIGIBLE to apply.

    3

    • MBA Pharmaceutical Management - Selection process is separate (Mumbai Campus)
    • Full Time Bachelor's Degree (10+2+3/4) in Pharmacy, Science, Life Sciences, MBBS, BDS, BHMS, BAMS, B.Sc. and M.Sc. in Biotechnology from a recognized University with minimum 50% marks in the aggregate in first attempt. Post Graduate degree holders in Economics, Psychology and Sociology can also apply.
    • Candidates with B.Tech. or B.E. in Bio-Tech. or Bio- Medical are also eligible to apply.
    • Those candidates who have cleared their graduation by doing a part-time course or through distance learning, correspondence courses, externally, open school are NOT ELIGIBLE to apply.
    • Candidates working in Pharmaceutical Companies for more than two years are preferred.

    4

    • PGDM -Bengaluru Campus
      PGDBM - Hyderabad Campus

    • Full Time Bachelor's Degree (10+2+3/4) in any discipline from a recognized University with minimum 50% marks in the aggregate in first attempt.
    • Those candidates who have cleared their graduation by doing a part-time course or through distance learning, correspondence courses, externally, open school are NOT ELIGIBLE to apply.

     

    Other Important Information regarding Admission for Indian Candidates

    • For all the full time programs candidates who are appearing for the final examination are eligible to apply (Provisional admission subject to clearing the final examination in first attempt and in the stipulated duration as per the respective University/Institution awarding the degree with 50 % aggregate marks) and also producing all the necessary documents, in original, within the given stipulated time.
    • For all the Full Time programs candidates with two years and more years of post-qualification work experience will be preferred.
    • At the time of admission, the candidate should have cleared all the trimesters / semesters.     
    • Those candidates who have passed, or, have appeared for graduation examination from a University where Grade Point Average is given, such candidates must produce in writing from the University concerned about the equivalent percentage for the GPA/CGPA obtained.
    • It is sole responsibility of the candidates to ascertain whether they possess the necessary and requisite qualification for the admission at NMIMS.
    • If at any stage, it is found that a candidate does not satisfy the eligibility criteria or the information furnished by him/her in the online registration is incorrect, his/her application for the admission to the Program, even if selected, will stand cancelled. Candidates appearing for NMAT, Group Discussion & Personal Interview will do so at their own risk, eventually, forfeiting their admission for want of meeting the eligibility criteria. In such cases candidate will forfeit all the payments like NMAT registration charges, GD-PI registration charges, Program fee etc.
    • NMIMS reserves the right to alter the terms of eligibility without intimation to the applicants.

     

    NMAT 2015: Test Centers in India
    NMAT 2015will be conducted at 18 centers located

    TEST CENTRES

    North

    Chandigarh, Delhi, Jaipur, Lucknow

    West

    Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Nagpur

    South

    Bengaluru, Chennai, Cochin, Hyderabad

    Central

    Bhillai, Bhopal, Indore

    East

    Bhubaneswar, Guwahati Kolkata, Patna


    IMPORTANT:

    • Venue details are provided to the candidates through confirmation e-mail sent after the candidate has successful registered and scheduled.
    • No separate call letter will be mailed.
    • Group Discussion & Personal Interview for shortlisted candidates will be conducted in Mumbai only.
    • The final merit list will be prepared on the basis of the application data in terms of academic marks obtained, work experience, marks obtained in NMAT and GD/PI.
    • The result for NMAT 2015 will be declared on the website as per the important dates available on the website.  Shortlisted candidate is required to download the call letter from the official website www.nmims.edu.
    • Candidates are advised to visit the NMIMS website www.nmims.edu to know the details of various steps of selection process. All communication to the candidates will be through NMIMS website only.

    NMAT 2015: Information for International Candidates

    International candidates will include the following:

    • Candidates holding passports issued by foreign countries and people of Indian origin who have acquired the nationality of foreign countries.
    • Candidate who has Indian Passport but is working out of India continuously for more than two years (as on 20th October, 2014).
    • Sons & daughters or spouses of NRI who have been physically out of India or are out of India for a period of two consecutive years (as on 20th October, 2014).
    • Non Resident Indian candidates who have studied and passed the qualifying examinations from Universities in foreign countries. This will include the candidates studying in Universities situated in foreign countries but will not include the candidates studying in India in a foreign University campus located in India.

    NOTE: GMAT score will be accepted from the above mentioned candidates in lieu of NMAT.

    Eligibility Criteria for Admission:

    • Full Time Bachelor's Degree (10+2+3/4) in any discipline from UGC recognized University with minimum 50% marks in aggregate in first attempt. The candidate must have completed graduation in the stipulated duration as per the respective University/Institution awarding the degree. Those candidates who have cleared their graduation by doing a part-time course or through distance learning, correspondence courses, externally, open school are NOT ELIGIBLE to apply.
    • Valid GMAT score of 600 and above (GMAT score for last 3 years up to 20th October, 2014 will be considered) for the international candidates.
    • Admission is subject to getting clearance for the candidate's Government (if required) and a student visa from the Indian Embassy in your country.
    • For all the Full Time programs candidates with two years and more years of post-qualification work experience will be preferred.

    Selection Process:

    For the candidate based in India at the time of Group Discussion & Personal Interview -

    • Group Discussion & Personal Interview for short listed candidates will be conducted in Mumbai only.
    • Call letter for short listed candidate who needs to appear for Group Discussion & Personal Interview will be uploaded on the NMIMS official website www.nmims.edu.
    • No separate call letter will be mailed.
    • The final decision of the University will be based on the GMAT score, Group Discussion, Personal Interview scores, work experience scores, if any, along with academic scores.

    For the candidate not based in India at the time of Group Discussion & Personal Interview –

    Short listed candidates who are based outside India during this period will be telephonically interviewed at a prefixed date and time.

    Compulsory Documents to be submitted at the time of admission

    • Duly attested photo copies of Bachelor's Degree.
    • Certificate of equivalence of the degree from competent statutory authority of the country.
    • Mark sheet/Degrees in a language other than English should be got translated into English language and a copy of the same duly attested be attached.
    • TOFEL or IELTS score card.
    • GMAT score card
    • Medical Insurance documents
    • Copy of passport
    • 'STUDENT VISA' endorsed to NMIMS for joining full time Program. No other endorsement is acceptable. The Visa should be valid for the prescribed duration of the Program.
    • Proof of residence.

    NMAT 2015: Paper Pattern

    NMAT 2015 would be an objective type multiple-choice test, i.e. there will be no descriptive type questions. Also there will be no negative marking. This shall encourage the candidates to take the test in a confident manner and to take calculated risks while answering and not drop a question for the fear of deduction in marks. This system of no negative marking has been adopted by NMIMS as per the current 'best global practices and psychometric principles'.        
           
    NMAT 2015: Section of Exam Paper


    Sr. No

    Section

    No. of Questions

    Time in Minutes

    1

    Language Skills

    32

    22

    2

    Quantitative Skills

    48

    60

    3

    Logical Reasoning

    40

    38

     

    Total

    120

    120

    • NMAT is a comparative exam and not self – performance oriented, i.e. it is important for you to perform well relative to other candidates in each of the 3 sections of the test as the score of each section and the overall score will be used to shortlist the candidate for the second stage of the selection process as well as in the final ranking.
    • Candidates will get admission if they meet the required standards of a two-stage selection process. All eligible candidates are required to appear for the computer based NMAT to be conducted across the country. Short listed candidates will have to appear for group discussion and personal interview which will be held in Mumbai only.

    NMAT 2015: CBT (Computer Based Test)

    The NMAT-2015 is a computer-delivered test where each candidate gets a randomly generated exam from a pool of questions. The number of questions, difficulty levels and the time limit for each of the sections is predetermined and, under normal administration conditions, are the same regardless of when and where the test is administered. The test is non-adaptive in which the computer will display questions one at a time.
    In NMAT 2015, candidates can choose the order of three test sections. Each section has an allotted section time and the candidate has to complete the section including answering and reviewing the questions in the given section time limit.

    NMAT 2015: Results

    NMIMS does not send any results directly to the candidates, but it will publish scaled scores every 4-5 weeks and the final percentile results on their website on a pre-set and announced date.

    • Scaled scores - All the test forms are equated to account for any differences in overall difficulty and the raw test scores are placed on a common scale. This is done to ensure scores are comparable across test forms such that the scores are not impacted by different candidates getting different test forms.
    • Percentile scores - The percentile rank or score shows how a candidate scored when compared to all other candidates who took the exam (e.g. all candidates who will give the NMAT-2015). For example, if a candidate is said to be at the 75th percentile, the candidate scored better than 75% of the candidates who took the NMAT-2015.

    NMAT 2015
    : Syllabus

    Language Skills
    • Reading Comprehension
    • Passages
    • Poems
    • Synonyms
    • Anonyms
    • Dictionary meanings of different words,
    • Syntax, and correct grammar
    • Language usage and their rules

    Quantitative Skills, Data Interpretation & DS

    • Arithmetic
    • Algebra
    • Trigonometry
    • 2D and 3 D Geometry, and Statistic.
    • Line graph
    • Bar graph
    • Tables
    • Pie chart.

    Logical Reasoning

    • Coding & Decoding,
    • Strong Arguments and Weak Arguments,
    • Series,
    • Family tree,
    • Multi-dimensional arrangements,
    • Puzzles

    NMAT 2015: Preparation Strategy

    Books –

    • MBA Entrance Gide CAT/ MAT/ JMET/ MHCET/ FMS & Others MBA Entrance Exams
    • All India Entrance Test CAT XAT ATMA JMET MAT by Chandresh Agrawal
    • Guide to MBA Entrance Test - MAT CAT ATMA XLRI SCMHRD NMIMS JMET Etc
    • JMET MBA Entrance Compel Book by Chandresh Agrawal
    • Model Test Papers JMET Joint Management Entrance Test
    • Guide Plus Self Scorer for MBA Entrance Exams CAT XAT CET JMET RMAT Symbiosis etc.
    • Complete Kit for MBA Entrance Exam for CAT, MAT XLRI FMS XAT JMET & All other MBA Entrance Exams by Sanjeev Verma

    It has three campuses for Business Management Program:

    • Mumbai Campus
    • Bengaluru Campus
    • Hyderabad Campus


    Post Graduate Programs offered by SBM – NMIMS are:

    • MBA Core - Started in the year 1981, this is the flagship program of the institute
    • MBA Banking - Started in 2007
    • MBA Capital Markets - Started in 2006 (in collaboration with the Bombay Stock Exchange)
    • MBA - Pharmaceuticals Management
    • MBA - Human Resource Management
    • PGDBM - Business Management
    • PGDM - Post Graduate Diploma in Management (NMIMS Bengaluru and Hyderabad campuses)
    • EPGDM - Executive Post Graduate Diploma in Business Management (NMIMS Bengaluru and Hyderabad campuses)

    Admissions to all these programs are through NMIMS Management Aptitude Test (NMAT) followed by Group Discussions/ Personal Interview.
    previous papers for practise: http://gkpapers.blogspot.com/


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