Watch Virtex-6 HXT FPGA 100G CFP Demonstration

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Why FPGA ?-FPGA Overview

Field Programmable Gate Arrays are two dimensional array of logic blocks and flip-flops with a electrically programmable interconnections between logic blocks.

The interconnections consist of electrically programmable switches which is why FPGA differs from Custom ICs, as Custom IC is programmed using integrated circuit fabrication technology to form metal interconnections between logic blocks.

 

In an FPGA logic blocks are implemented using mutliple level low fanin gates, which gives it a more compact design compared to an implementation with two-level AND-OR logic. FPGA provides its user a way to configure:

  1. The intersection between the logic blocks and
  2. The function of each logic block.

Logic block of an FPGA can be configured in such a way that it can provide functionality as simple as that of transistor or as complex as that of a microprocessor. It can used to implement different combinations of combinational and sequential logic functions. Logic blocks of an FPGA can be implemented by any of the following:

  1. Transistor pairs
  2. combinational gates like basic NAND gates or XOR gates
  3. n-input Lookup tables
  4. Multiplaexers
  5. Wide fanin And-OR structure.

 

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Figure 1: Simplefied version of FPGA internal architecture.

Routing in FPGAs consists of wire segments of varying lengths which can be interconnected via electrically programmable switches. Density of logic block used in an FPGA depends on length and number of wire segments used for routing. Number of segments used for interconnection typically is a tradeoff between density of logic blocks used and amount of area used up for routing.

The ability to reconfigure functionality to be implemented on a chip gives a unique advantage to designer who designs his system on an FPGA It reduces the time to market and significantly reduces the cost of production.

Why do we need FPGAs ?

By the early 1980's Large scale integrated circuits (LSI) formed the back bone of most of the logic circuits in major systems. Microprocessors, bus/IO controllers, system timers etc were implemented using integrated circuit fabrication technology. Random "glue logic" or interconnects were still required to help connect the large integrated circuits in order to :

  1. generate global control signals (for resets etc.)
  2. data signals from one subsystem to another sub system.

Systems typically consisted of few large scale integrated components and large number of SSI (small scale integrated circuit) and MSI (medium scale integrated circuit) components.

Intial attempt to solve this problem led to development of Custom ICs which were to replace the large amount of interconnect. This reduced system complexity and manufacturing cost, and improved performance.However, custom ICs have their own disadvantages. They are relatively very expensive to develop, and delay introduced for product to market (time to market) because of increased design time. There are two kinds of costs involved in development of Custom ICs:
1. cost of development and design
2. cost of manufacture
( A tradeoff usually exists between the two costs)

Therefore the custom IC approach was only viable for products with very high volume, and which were not time to market sensitive.

FPGAs were introduced as an alternative to custom ICs for implementing entire system on one chip and to provide flexibility of reporogramability to the user. Introduction of FPGAs resulted in improvement of density relative to discrete SSI/MSI components (within around 10x of custom ICs). Another advantage of FPGAs over CustomICs is that with the help of computer aided design (CAD) tools circuits could be implemented in a short amount of time (no physical layout process, no mask making, no IC manufacturing)
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Figure 2: FPGA comparative analysis.

28Gbps Serial Transceiver Technology from xilinx

The Ashes Schedule 2010 - 2011

The Ashes Schedule 2010 - 2011


Date Teams Match Venue Time
25 Nov 10 Australia vs England 1st Test Brisbane Cricket Ground (Woolloongabba), Brisbane - Queensland 05:30 IST
03 Dec 10 Australia vs England 2nd Test Adelaide Oval, Adelaide - South Australia 05:30 IST
16 Dec 10 Australia vs England 3rd Test W.A.C.A. Ground, Perth - Western Australia 08:00 IST
26 Dec 10 Australia vs England 4th Test Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), Melbourne - Victoria 05:00 IST
03 Jan 11 Australia vs England 5th Test Sydney Cricket Ground (SCG), Sydney 05:00 IST

Image Segmentation Algorithms - Image Segmentation ppts

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khader's 1st test questions...from tcs openseecame

# 1

There are two water tanks A and B, A is much smaller than B. While water fills at the rate of one litre every hour in A, it gets filled up like 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 .. in tank B. (At the end of first hour, B has 10 litres, second hour it has 20, and so on). If 1/32 of B's volume is filled after 3 hours, what is the total duration required to fill it completely?
  • 7 hours
  • 8 hours
  • 10 hours
  • 9 hours

# 2

The pacelength P is the distance between the rear of two consecutive footprints. For men, the formula, n/P = 144 gives an approximate relationship between n and P where, n = number of steps per minute and P = pacelength in meters. Bernard knows his pacelength is 164cm. The formula applies to Bernard's walking. Calculate Bernard's walking speed in kmph.
  • 11.39
  • 236.16
  • 23.62

# 3

The IT giant Tirnop has recently crossed a head count of 150000 and earnings of $7 billion. As one of the forerunners in the technology front, Tirnop continues to lead the way in products and services in India. At Tirnop, all programmers are equal in every respect. They receive identical salaries ans also write code at the same rate.Suppose 12 such programmers take 12 minutes to write 12 lines of code in total. How many lines of code can be written by 72 programmers in 72 minutes?
  • 432
  • 72
  • 6
  • 12

Alok and Bhanu play the following min-max game. Given the expression
N = 12 + X*(Y - Z)
where X, Y and Z are variables representing single digits (0 to 9), Alok would like to maximize N while Bhanu would like to minimize it. Towards this end, Alok chooses a single digit number and Bhanu substitutes this for a variable of her choice (X, Y or Z). Alok then chooses the next value and Bhanu, the variable to substitute the value. Finally Alok proposes the value for the remaining variable. Assuming both play to their optimal strategies, the value of N at the end of the game would be
  • -69
  • 93
  • 30
  • 12

# 5

A hollow cube of size 5 cm is taken, with a thickness of 1 cm. It is made of smaller cubes of size 1 cm. If 4 faces of the outer surface of the cube are painted, totally how many faces of the smaller cubes remain unpainted?
  • 488
  • 900
  • 800
  • 500

# 6

Given a collection of points P in the plane, a 1-set is a point in P that can be separated from the rest by a line; i.e. the point lies on one side of the line while the others lie on the other side. The number of 1-sets of P is denoted by n1(P). The maximum value of n1(P) over all configurations P of 10 points in the plane is
  • 3
  • 9
  • 10
  • 5

# 7

Planet fourfi resides in 4-dimensional space and thus the currency used by its residents are 3-dimensional objects. The rupee notes are cubical in shape while their coins are spherical. However the coin minting machinery lays out some stipulations on the size of the coins.
  • The diameter of the coins should be at least 64mm and not exceed 512mm.
  • Given a coin, the diameter of the next larger coin is at least 50% greater.
  • The diameter of the coin must always be an integer.
You are asked to design a set of coins of different diameters with these requirements and your goal is to design as many coins as possible. How many coins can you design?
  • 5
  • 6
  • 9
  • 8

# 8

The IT giant Tirnop has recently crossed a head count of 150000 and earnings of $7 billion. As one of the forerunners in the technology front, Tirnop continues to lead the way in products and services in India. At Tirnop, all programmers are equal in every respect. They receive identical salaries ans also write code at the same rate.Suppose 12 such programmers take 12 minutes to write 12 lines of code in total. How long will it take 72 programmers to write 72 lines of code in total?
  • 72
  • 6
  • 12
  • 18
There are two boxes, one containing 10 red balls and the other containing 10 green balls. You are allowed to move the balls between the boxes so that when you choose a box at random and a ball at random from the chosen box, the probability of getting a red ball is maximized. This maximum probability is
  • 1/2
  • 14/19
  • 3/4
  • 37/38

# 10

Anoop managed to draw 7 circles of equal radii with their centres on the diagonal of a square such that the two extreme circles touch two sides of the square and each middle circle touches two circles on either side. Find the ratio of the radius of the circles to the side of the square.
  • 1:(4+ 7√3)
  • 1:(2+ 7√2)
  • (2+ 7√2):1
  • 1:(2+ 6√2)
11

A sheet of paper has statements numbered from 1 to 30. For all values of n from 1 to 30, statement n says "At most n of the statements on this sheet are false". Which statements are true and which are false?
  • All statements are false.
  • The odd numbered statements are true and the even numbered are false.
  • All statements are true.
  • The even numbered statements are true and the odd numbered are false.

# 12

A hare and a tortoise have a race along a circle of 100 yards diameter. The tortoise goes in one direction and the hare in the other. The hare starts after the tortoise has covered 1/5 of its distance and that too leisurely. The hare and tortoise meet when the hare has covered only 1/8 of the distance. By what factor should the hare increase its speed so as to tie the race?
  • 40
  • 5
  • 37.80
  • 8
13

On the planet Oz, there are 8 days in a week- Sunday to Saturday and another day called Oz day. There are 36 hours in a day and each hour has 90 min while each minute has 60 sec. As on earth, the hour hand covers the dial twice every day.
Find the approximate angle between the hands of a clock on Oz when the time is 12:40 am.
  • 71
  • 111
  • 251
  • 89

# 14

The teacher is testing a student's proficiency in arithmetic and poses the following question.
1/3 of a number is 3 more than 1/6 of the same number. What is the number?
Can you help the student find the answer?
  • 12
  • 6
  • 18
  • 21
# 15

Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1928 as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles in 1947 as Ferrari S.p.A.. Throughout its history, the company has been noted for its continued participation in racing, especially in Formula One, where it has enjoyed great success. Rohit once bought a Ferrari. It could go 2 times as fast as Mohit's old Mercedes. If the speed of Mohit's Mercedes is 32 km/hr and the distance travelled by the Ferrari is 952 km, find the total time taken in hours for Rohit to drive that distance.
  • 14.88
  • 15.88

  • 29.75
  • 476
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what is HTML5?

what is  HTML5?

The evolution of the latest version of HTML known as HTML5, a set of capabilities that gives web designers and developers the ability to create the next generation of great online applications. Take the HTML5 <video> tag, for example. Video wasn't a major (or, really, any) part of the early web...

Other cool HTML5 features include offline capabilities that let users interact with web apps even when they don't have an internet connection, as well as drag-and-drop capabilities. In Gmail, for instance, easy drag-and-drop allows users to instantly attach a file to an email message by simply dragging the file from the user's desktop computer into the browser window.

HTML5, like the web itself, is in perpetualevolution, based on users' needs and developers' imaginations. As an open standard, HTML5 embodies some of the best aspects of the web: it works everywhere, and on any device with a modern browser. But just as you can only watch HDTV broadcasts on an HD-compatible television, you need to use an up-to-date, HTML5-compatible browser in order to enjoy sites and apps that take advantage of HTML5's features. Thankfully, as an Internet user, you have lots of choice when it comes to web browsers — and unlike TVs, web browsers can be downloaded for free.

Almost all Microsoft Word Keyboard Shortcuts..

Microsoft office Keyboard Shortcuts

Command Shortcut combination
------------------------------------------------------------------------

All Caps CTRL+SHIFT+A
Annotation ALT+CTRL+M
App Maximize ALT+F10
App Restore ALT+F5
Apply Heading1 ALT+CTRL+1
Apply Heading2 ALT+CTRL+2
Apply Heading3 ALT+CTRL+3
Apply List Bullet CTRL+SHIFT+L
Auto Format ALT+CTRL+K
Auto Text F3 or ALT+CTRL+V
Bold CTRL+B or CTRL+SHIFT+B
Bookmark CTRL+SHIFT+F5
Browse Next CTRL+PAGE DOWN
Browse Previous CTRL+PAGE UP
Browse Sel ALT+CTRL+HOME
Cancel ESC
Center Para CTRL+E
Change Case SHIFT+F3
Char Left LEFT
Char Left Extend SHIFT+LEFT
Char Right RIGHT
Char Right Extend SHIFT+RIGHT
Clear DELETE
Close or Exit ALT+F4
Close Pane ALT+SHIFT+C
Column Break CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER
Column Select CTRL+SHIFT+F8
Copy CTRL+C or CTRL+INSERT
Copy Format CTRL+SHIFT+C
Copy Text SHIFT+F2
Create Auto Text ALT+F3
Customize Add Menu ALT+CTRL+=
Customize Keyboard ALT+CTRL+NUM +
Customize Remove Menu ALT+CTRL+-
Cut CTRL+X or SHIFT+DELETE
Date Field ALT+SHIFT+D
Delete Back Word CTRL+BACKSPACE
Delete Word CTRL+DELETE
Dictionary ALT+SHIFT+F7
Do Field Click ALT+SHIFT+F9
Doc Close CTRL+W or CTRL+F4
Doc Maximize CTRL+F10
Doc Move CTRL+F7
Doc Restore CTRL+F5
Doc Size CTRL+F8
Doc Split ALT+CTRL+S
Double Underline CTRL+SHIFT+D
End of Column ALT+PAGE DOWN
End of Column ALT+SHIFT+PAGE DOWN
End of Doc Extend CTRL+SHIFT+END
End of Document CTRL+END
End of Line END
End of Line Extend SHIFT+END
End of Row ALT+END
End of Row ALT+SHIFT+END
End of Window ALT+CTRL+PAGE DOWN
End of Window Extend ALT+CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE DOWN
Endnote Now ALT+CTRL+D
Extend Selection F8
Field Chars CTRL+F9
Field Codes ALT+F9
Find CTRL+F
Font CTRL+D or CTRL+SHIFT+F
Font Size Select CTRL+SHIFT+P
Footnote Now ALT+CTRL+F
Go Back SHIFT+F5 or ALT+CTRL+Z
Go To CTRL+G or F5
Grow Font CTRL+SHIFT+.
Grow Font One Point CTRL+]
Hanging Indent CTRL+T
Header Footer Link ALT+SHIFT+R
Help F1
Hidden CTRL+SHIFT+H
Hyperlink CTRL+K
Indent CTRL+M
Italic CTRL+I or CTRL+SHIFT+I
Justify Para CTRL+J
Left Para CTRL+L
Line Down DOWN
Line Down Extend SHIFT+DOWN
Line Up UP
Line Up Extend SHIFT+UP
List Num Field ALT+CTRL+L
Lock Fields CTRL+3 or CTRL+F11
Macro ALT+F8
Mail Merge Check ALT+SHIFT+K
Mail Merge Edit Data Source ALT+SHIFT+E
Mail Merge to Doc ALT+SHIFT+N
Mail Merge to Printer ALT+SHIFT+M
Mark Citation ALT+SHIFT+I
Mark Index Entry ALT+SHIFT+X
Mark Table of Contents Entry ALT+SHIFT+O
Menu Mode F10
Merge Field ALT+SHIFT+F
Microsoft Script Editor ALT+SHIFT+F11
Microsoft System Info ALT+CTRL+F1
Move Text F2
New CTRL+N
Next Cell TAB
Next Field F11 or ALT+F1
Next Misspelling ALT+F7
Next Object ALT+DOWN
Next Window CTRL+F6 or ALT+F6
Normal ALT+CTRL+N
Normal Style CTRL+SHIFT+N or ALT+SHIFT+CLEAR (NUM 5)
Open CTRL+O or CTRL+F12 or ALT+CTRL+F2
Open or Close Up Para CTRL+0
Other Pane F6 or SHIFT+F6
Outline ALT+CTRL+O
Outline Collapse ALT+SHIFT+- or ALT+SHIFT+NUM -
Outline Demote ALT+SHIFT+RIGHT
Outline Expand ALT+SHIFT+=
Outline Expand ALT+SHIFT+NUM +
Outline Move Down ALT+SHIFT+DOWN
Outline Move Up ALT+SHIFT+UP
Outline Promote ALT+SHIFT+LEFT
Outline Show First Line ALT+SHIFT+L
Overtype INSERT
Page ALT+CTRL+P
Page Break CTRL+ENTER
Page Down PAGE DOWN
Page Down Extend SHIFT+PAGE DOWN
Page Field ALT+SHIFT+P
Page Up PAGE UP
Page Up Extend SHIFT+PAGE UP
Para Down CTRL+DOWN
Para Down Extend CTRL+SHIFT+DOWN
Para Up CTRL+UP
Para Up Extend CTRL+SHIFT+UP
Paste CTRL+V or SHIFT+INSERT
Paste Format CTRL+SHIFT+V
Prev Cell SHIFT+TAB
Prev Field SHIFT+F11 or ALT+SHIFT+F1
Prev Object ALT+UP
Prev Window CTRL+SHIFT+F6 or ALT+SHIFT+F6
Print CTRL+P or CTRL+SHIFT+F12
Print Preview CTRL+F2 or ALT+CTRL+I
Proofing F7
Redo ALT+SHIFT+BACKSPACE
Redo or Repeat CTRL+Y or F4 or ALT+ENTER
Repeat Find SHIFT+F4 or ALT+CTRL+Y
Replace CTRL+H
Reset Char CTRL+SPACE or CTRL+SHIFT+Z
Reset Para CTRL+Q
Revision Marks Toggle CTRL+SHIFT+E
Right Para CTRL+R
Save CTRL+S or SHIFT+F12 or ALT+SHIFT+F2
Save As F12
Select All CTRL+A or CTRL+CLEAR (NUM 5) or CTRL+NUM 5
Select Table ALT+CLEAR (NUM 5)
Show All CTRL+SHIFT+8
Show All Headings ALT+SHIFT+A
Show Heading1 ALT+SHIFT+1
Show Heading2 ALT+SHIFT+2
Show Heading3 ALT+SHIFT+3
Show Heading4 ALT+SHIFT+4
Show Heading5 ALT+SHIFT+5
Show Heading6 ALT+SHIFT+6
Show Heading7 ALT+SHIFT+7
Show Heading8 ALT+SHIFT+8
Show Heading9 ALT+SHIFT+9
Shrink Font CTRL+SHIFT+,
Shrink Font One Point CTRL+[
Small Caps CTRL+SHIFT+K
Space Para1 CTRL+1
Space Para15 CTRL+5
Space Para2 CTRL+2
Spike CTRL+SHIFT+F3 or CTRL+F3
Start of Column ALT+PAGE UP
Start of Column ALT+SHIFT+PAGE UP
Start of Doc Extend CTRL+SHIFT+HOME
Start of Document CTRL+HOME
Start of Line HOME
Start of Line Extend SHIFT+HOME
Start of Row ALT+HOME
Start of Row ALT+SHIFT+HOME
Start of Window ALT+CTRL+PAGE UP
Start of Window Extend ALT+CTRL+SHIFT+PAGE UP
Style CTRL+SHIFT+S
Subscript CTRL+=
Superscript CTRL+SHIFT+=
Symbol Font CTRL+SHIFT+Q
Thesaurus SHIFT+F7
Time Field ALT+SHIFT+T
Toggle Field Display SHIFT+F9
Toggle Master Subdocs CTRL+\
Tool SHIFT+F1
Un Hang CTRL+SHIFT+T
Un Indent CTRL+SHIFT+M
Underline CTRL+U or CTRL+SHIFT+U
Undo CTRL+Z or ALT+BACKSPACE
Unlink Fields CTRL+6 or CTRL+SHIFT+F9
Unlock Fields CTRL+4 or CTRL+SHIFT+F11
Update Auto Format ALT+CTRL+U
Update Fields F9 or ALT+SHIFT+U
Update Source CTRL+SHIFT+F7
VBCode ALT+F11
Web Go Back ALT+LEFT
Web Go Forward ALT+RIGHT
Word Left CTRL+LEFT
Word Left Extend CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT
Word Right CTRL+RIGHT
Word Right Extend CTRL+SHIFT+RIGHT
Word Underline CTRL+SHIFT+W

Microsoft Word Keyboard Shortcuts

Microsoft Word Keyboard Shortcuts

Bold CTRL+B
Change case SHIFT+F3
Copy CTRL+C
Delete a word CTRL+BACKSPACE
Find and replace CTRL+F
Go to page, section, line, etc. CTRL+G
Go to the beginning of the document CTRL+HOME
Go to the end of the document CTRL+END
Insert a hyperlink CTRL+K
Italicize CTRL+I
Open CTRL+O
Open the thesaurus SHIFT+F7
Paste CTRL+V
Print CTRL+P
Repeat your last action F4 or CTRL+Y
Save CTRL+S
Select all CTRL+A
Select to the beginning of the document CTRL+SHIFT+HOME
Select to the end of the document CTRL+SHIFT+END
Undo CTRL+Z
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