Download admit card for SNAP/SNAP 2011 Test Format

Download admit card for SNAP test by click on the following link....
exam is on  18-12-2011

SNAP 2011 is short for Symbiosis National Aptitude test. SNAP 2011 score is essential for admission into the postgraduate institutes of the Symbiosis International University. Short listed candidates will then have to clear the individual selection process of the Symbiosis Institute from where they desire to undertake their higher education. This test is held under the guidance of SIEC Deemed University.

SNAP 2011 Test Format

SNAP 2011 Test consists of 150 objective type questions. Every question lists 4 responses out of which you have to select the right answer. For every wrong answer, 25% marks will be deducted. The duration of SNAP 2011 entrance exam is 120 minutes.

SNAP 2011 admission test consists of 4 sections which are explained in the table given below-

Section No of Questions Total Marks
Analytical and Logical Reasoning 3060
Quantitative, Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency 40 40
General Awareness: General Knowledge, Current Affairs, Business Scenario 4040
General English: Reading Comprehension, Verbal Reasoning, Verbal Ability 40 40
Total150 180

9 Powerful Awk Built-in Functions for Numeric

9 Powerful Awk Built-in Functions for Numeric

awk also has lot of built-in functions for numeric, string, input, and ouput operations. Awk has the following three types of high level built-in function categories.

  1. Built-in functions for numeric operations
  2. Built-in functions for String operations
  3. Built-in functions for Input Output operations

In this article, we will review awk Numeric built-in functions.

1. Awk int(n) Function

int() function gives you the integer part of the given argument. This produces the lowest  integer part of given n. n is any number with or with out floating point. If you give the whole number as an argument, this function returns the same. For floating point number, it truncates.


 $ awk 'BEGIN{ print int(3.534); print int(4); print int(-5.223); print int(-5); }' 3 4 -5 -5

2. Awk log(n) Function

log() function provides natural logarithmic of given argument n. log() returns logarithm value only when n is positive number. If you give any invalid number (even negative) it throws an error.


 $ awk 'BEGIN{ print log(12); print log(0); print log(1); print log(-1); }' 2.48491 -inf 0 nan

In the above output you can identify that log(0) is infinity which was shown as -inf, and log(-1) gives you the error nan (Not a Number)

3. Awk sqrt(n) Function

sqrt function gives the positive square root for the given integer n. This function also accepts the positive number, and it returns nan error if you give the negative number as an argument.


 $ awk 'BEGIN{ print sqrt(16); print sqrt(0); print sqrt(-12); }' 4 0 nan

4. Awk exp(n) Function

exp function provides e to the power of n.


 $ awk 'BEGIN{ print exp(123434346); print exp(0); print exp(-12); }' inf 1 6.14421e-06

In the above output, for exp(1234346), it gives you the output infinity, because this is out of range.

5. Awk sin(n) Function

sin() function gives sine value of n, with n in radians.


 $ awk 'BEGIN { print sin(90); print sin(45); }' 0.893997 0.850904

6. Awk cos(n) Function

cos() returns cosine value of n, with n in radians.


 $ awk 'BEGIN { print cos(90); print cos(45); }' -0.448074 0.525322

7. Awk atan2(m,n) Function

This function gives you the arc-tangent of m/n in radians.


 $ awk 'BEGIN { print atan2(30,45);  }' 0.588003

8. Awk rand() Function

rand() is used to generate the random number between 0 and 1. It never return 0 and 1. It always returns the value between 0 and 1. Numbers are random with in one awk run, but predictable from run to run. Awk uses some algorithm to generate the random numbers. Since this algorithm is fixed, the numbers are repeatable.


The following example generates 1000 random numbers between 0 to 100 and shows how often each number was used

 $cat rand.awk BEGIN { while(i<1000) { 	n = int(rand()*100); 	rnd[n]++; 	i++; } for(i=0;i<=100;i++) { 	print i,"Occured", rnd[i], "times"; } } $

Pasted some of the output of the above script here.

 $awk -f rand.awk 0 Occured 6 times 1 Occured 16 times 2 Occured 12 times 3 Occured 6 times 4 Occured 13 times 5 Occured 13 times 6 Occured 8 times 7 Occured 7 times 8 Occured 16 times 9 Occured 9 times 10 Occured 6 times 11 Occured 9 times 12 Occured 17 times 13 Occured 12 times

From the above output, sure that rand() function can generate repeatable numbers very often.

9. Awk srand(n) Function

srand() is used to initialize the random generation with the given argument n. So that whenever the program execution starts, it starts generating the number from n. If no argument is given, it uses the time of the day to generate the seed.

Example. Generate 5 random number starting from 5 to 50

 $cat srand.awk BEGIN { #initialize the seed with 5. srand(5); # Totally I want to generate 5 numbers. total=5; #maximum number is 50. max=50; count=0; while(count < total) { 	rnd = int(rand() * max); 	if ( array[rnd] == 0 ) { 		count++; 		array[rnd]++; 	} } for ( i=5; i<=max; i++) { 	if ( array[i] ) 		print i; } }

In this srand.awk, using rand() function, generate the number and multiply with max value to produce the number with the max of 50, and check if the generated random number is already exist in the array, if it does not exist, increment its index and as well as increment loop count. so that it generates 5 number like this and finally in the for loop from minimum number to maximum, and prints the index only which has the value.

Here is the output of the above script

 $ awk -f  srand.awk 9 15 26 37 39

Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk

Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk, 3rd Edition 

Author(s) : Brent Welch 
Publication date : Jan 2000 
ISBN : 0-13-022028-0 
Pages : 832 
Publisher : Prentice Hall PTR 

Book excerpts: 

Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk is meant as a practical guide to help the readers get the most out of Tcl and Tk and avoid some of the frustrations. It assumes that the readers have some programming experience, although they should be able to get by even if they are a complete novice. Knowledge of UNIX shell programming will help, but it is not required. 

This book is meant to be useful to the beginner in Tcl as well as the expert. For the beginner and expert alike, a careful study of Chapter 1, Tcl Fundamentals, is recommended. The programming model of Tcl is designed to be simple, but it is different from many programming languages. The model is based on string sub- stitutions, and it is important that you understand it properly to avoid trouble in complex cases. The remainder of the book consists of examples that demonstrate how to use Tcl and Tk productively. For your reference, each chapter has tables that summarize the Tcl commands and Tk widgets they describe. 

You are assumed to have some programming experience, although you should be able to get by even if you are a complete novice. Knowledge of UNIX shell programming will help, but it is not required. Where aspects of win-dow systems are relevant, some background information is provided. Chapter 2 describes the details of using Tcl and Tk on UNIX, Windows, and Macintosh. 

Arrow View/Download Practical Programming in Tcl and Tk

M.Tech in University of Hyderabad

M.Tech in University of Hyderabad
Hyderabad Central University (HCU) offer various Postgraduate,
Advanced PG Diploma, PG Diploma, 5 Year Integrated Master's and
Research Programmes in all major subjects of Sciences, Humanities,
Social Sciences, Performing Arts, Fine Arts, Communication and
Management Studies. The university also offer programmes related to
health sciences and engineering. Admission to all the schools and
departments and thier programmes will be through an All India entrance
examination to be conducted during May - June every year. Candidates
should have prescribed qualifications irrespective of their race,
creed, language, caste or sex. Admission to all the courses will be
through merit in entrance examination except for following courses:

1) M.Tech CS / AI / IT: Admission will be based on ranks in GATE
Examination in Computer Science and Information Technology. University
will not conduct any written test for this courses.

2) M.Tech. IC Technology: Candidates will be shortlisted for this
course based on GATE scores in the papers of Electronics and
Communication Engineering, Instrumentation Engineering and Physics.

3) M.Tech. Computational Techniques: Candidates will be selected based
on GATE scores and interviews. UGC-CSIR NET for JRF qualified
candidates also will be considered.

4) M.Tech. Bioinformatics: Candidates will be short listed for
interviews based on their ranks in GATE in the subjects of
Biotechnology – BT, Chemistry – CY, Mathematics - MA, Physics – PH,
Agricultural Engineering – AG, Electronics and Communication
Engineering – EC; Computer Science and Information Technology – CS and
Chemical Engineering – CH. Half of the seats will be filled with
candidates other than Biotechnology background.

All the candidates for willing to join in PG and Diploma courses
offered in University of Hyderabad must have completed their
graduation of 3 years duration. The university also accepts two year
graduation courses if the candidates has undergone bridge course of
one year after completion of such course. Students admitted in any
regular course are not allowed to pursue any other course except part
time evening Certificate or Diploma Course of a Professional nature.
This will be allowed with prior permission of the School or Department
or Centre concerned of the University. Candidates should not take up
any employment during the course.


AICTE - CMAT 2012 Notification

AICTE - CMAT 2012 Eligibility, Exam Structure and Online Registration
All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), New Delhi has
announced notification for Common Management Admission Test (CMAT
2012) for admission in all management programmes approved by AICTE for
the year 2012-13. This is the first national level CMAT for
facilitating the management colleges and institutions to select the
candidates for admission to various programmes. CMAT 2012 will be
conducted online from 20th February 2012 to 28th February 2012 for
nine days in 61 cities across the country. The candidates will have to
choose the date and city to appear for the test.

Eligibility Requirements: Applicants should have Graduation in any
discipline or final year students of Graduate Courses can also apply
for CMAT 2012. Online Registration will open from 9th December 2011 to
9th January 2012 on the official CMAT website at .
Candidates can select up to 3 cities in order of preference to appear
for the examination. Test Fee is Rs. 1200 for General and OBC
candidates and Rs. 600 for SC, ST and PD candidates. Fee can be paid
in the form of Net Banking or credit or debit card through or by cash payment.

CMAT 2012 scores will be used to shortlist the candidates for
allotment of seats in the AICTE approved institutions and university
departments. For more details, you can contact at helpline numbers -
022 4036 9695 from 9th December 2011 to 11th April 2012. You can also
obtain information from or .
CMAT is a objective type multiple choice examination with questions
from following sections:

1) Quantitative Techniques and Data Interpretation: 50 questions - 45 minutes
2) Logical Reasoning: 50 questions - 45 minutes
3) General awareness: 50 questions - 45 minutes
4) Language Comprehension: 50 questions - 45 minutes

Important Dates:

1) Registration opens on: 9th December 2012
2) Last date for online registration: 9th January 2012
3) Computer Based CMAT Test: 20th February 2012 to 28th February 2012
4) Test timings: 9-30 AM to 12-30 PM and 2-30 PM to 5-30 PM.
5) Declaration of CMAT 2012 Result: 11th March 2012
6) Print outs of score cards availability: From 11th March 2012 to
11th April 2012.

IOB Probationary Officer JMG Scale Result / Selection List

IOB Probationary Officer JMG Scale Result / Selection List
Indian Overseas Bank Announce The List Of Selected Candidates Who
Qualified For The Interview Process And Send The Call Letter For The
Interview Process. The Destination Place Of Interview Will Given In
The Call Letter. Call Letter Send To The Candidates Given Address
Through Speed Post. The Written Exam Was Held At 29-05-2011.
Candidates Can Check The Result Of IOB Probationary Officer By
Clicking On The Given Link.
IOB Po Exam 2011 Selected Candidates List: Result